ESSE 2021

From 08/30/2021 to 09/03/2021

Lyon - France

Poster Session 1 – Thursday 2nd September 14.45-15.15

P1: Metaphorization of Economic Concepts in Business Discourse

Metaphor has been researched from different perspectives for centuries. Within the framework of traditional approach, it was viewed as a figure of speech where only its stylistic peculiarities were examined. The contemporary approach to metaphor implies the consideration of its cognitive potential as it sheds light on the comprehension of metaphoric shifts taking place in human mind. Namely, the founders of conceptual metaphor theory G. Lakoff and M. Johnson (1980) state that most of our ordinary conceptual system is metaphorical in nature and metaphors help us understand one kind of thing (the target domain) in terms of another (the source domain). The paper analyzes the phenomenon of economic concepts’ metaphorization in business discourse, provides a classification of the most common types of conceptual metaphors occurring in economic texts, as well as examines the versions of their translation from English into Armenian. The examples reflecting basic economic concepts such as economy, money, business, etc., were taken from the British National Corpus and studied in terms of their frequency and economic context usage. The contextual analysis has enabled us to select those cases where these concepts were used metaphorically, whereas the cognitive analysis has shown how metaphors help us conceptualize economic phenomena in a more comprehensive way. The contrastive analysis of English and Armenian economic metaphors has revealed that there are cases of full equivalence where we can observe word for word correspondence and there are partial equivalents where not all but some of the lexical units in metaphoric word combinations coincide with the English ones. In contrast with the above mentioned cases, we can come across some metaphors the translation of which requires the readers to have professional background and be quite familiar with the workings of economy to be able to understand and interpret metaphoric concepts.

*Yelena Yerznkyan (Yerevan State University, Armenia)
*Susanna Chalabyan (Armenian State University of Economics, Armenia)
*Lusine Harutyunyan (Armenian State University of Economics, Armenia)

P 2: Null and Overt Subjects by Heritage Speakers of English: Bilingual Immersion vs Foreign Language Instruction Contexts

Heritage speakers are early bilinguals who grow up hearing and speaking the heritage language and the community language (Benmamoun, Montrul and Polinsky, 2013). Their L2 usually becomes their primary language as it is the one they use to communicate with the community. This may cause an incomplete acquisition of their heritage language. It is the purpose of this study to understand what effects the context of instruction (immersion vs. EFL instruction) and the age of the participants (6-7 vs 11-12 year-olds vs.) have on the production and interpretation of null and overt subjects in the English of heritage speakers of English in Catalonia, Spain. Thus, it is our objective to answer the following questions:
(1) What effects does the context of instruction have on the production and interpretation of null and overt subjects in the English of heritage speakers of English?
(2) What effects does the age of the participants in both contexts of instruction have on the production and interpretation of null and overt subjects in the English of heritage speakers of English?
(3) How does the heritage speakers’ production and interpretation of null and overt subjects in English compare to that of English monolinguals?
To answer these questions, three tasks have been designed – a grammaticality judgment task, a comprehension task and a production task. This presentation will describe the data collection materials and some preliminary results. Heritage speakers constitute a relevant source of evidence within the field of SLA because they add additional perspectives and data formerly restricted to monolinguals and L2 learners. Potential findings will contribute to establishing how this population acquires English in different instruction contexts that necessarily constrain the amount and quality of input received.

*Andrea Huerta Bon (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain)

P 3: Trumping Twitter: Hostile and Benevolent Sexism in President Trump’s Tweets

The present work is part of a study concerning the discursive manifestations of U.S. President Trump’s sexist attitudes and practices. It aims to investigate the linguistic strategies utilised by President Trump to represent women by specifically analysing his Tweets, which are one of his privileged forms of communication. The purpose of the study is two-folded: drawing upon Mills’ model of sexism (2008), the first part of the study will analyse a corpus of all Trump’s negative Tweets against women since the beginning of his 2016 campaign (July 2015). The second part of the work will focus on Trump’s usage of benevolent sexism, a form of discrimination based on the idea that women are weak and need to be protected, that they should respect traditional gender roles, and that they should be idolised for their sexual availability. Drawing upon Fiske and Glick’s Ambivalent Sexism Theory (1996), the second section will thus analyse Trump’s positive Tweets addressing women during the same time-span used for the first corpus. Both sections shed a light on how President Trump’s vocabulary perpetuates a male-centric hierarchy in which women are to be kept away from significant social roles. Tweets conveying hostile sexism depict women as weak, incompetent beings who are mentally instable on one hand, and dishonest dangerous liars on the other, and thus not capable of achieving and keeping significant roles in society. On the other hand, Tweets conveying benevolent sexism consider women as generally lacking strength, skills, and ability, and thus they have to be cherished and complimented when capable of achieving something, just like a father would do with his children. Yet, through utterances conveying gender differentiation and intimate heterosexuality, Trump does recognise that women are essential in his work and life, as they are able to verbally, emotionally, and physically support him in ways men do not. His usages of hostile and benevolent sexism are actually two sides of the same coin: they both confirm the idea of women as an inferior sex. Trump’s eventual victory in the 2016 U.S. elections could suggest that his ideologies might be widely shared by part of the American population, and thus the findings of this study may serve as an overview of Americans’ attitudes towards gender discrimination. His political ascendency speaks to how these ideological beliefs are dangerously ingrained in language and society, and they should not be underestimated as they might have significant consequences for the stability of democracy. Dismissed as jokes played by a public personality, the President’s statements might not be “just words” (Farenthold, 2016), but a mirror of gender discrimination that is difficult to shatter.

*Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo (Università degli Studi di Napoli ‘L’Orientale’, Italia)

Poster Session 2 – Thursday 2nd September 14:45-15:15

P 4: Space in Polar Exploration: Ships and Ice Realms in Anglo-American Fiction, 1818-1851

Polar exploration was well under way in the first half of the nineteenth century among British and American explorers. Ice and ships embody recognisable elements of polar exploration. The two elements stand in opposition both on the pragmatic (the voyage) and the narrative levels. The focus of this project is on the manner in which these two spaces interact with one another and their functional role in the depiction of polar exploration. The main hypothesis of my project is as follows: polar ice and ships in the novels interact with one another in a complex fashion and embody distinct spaces both experienced and imagined by the characters. The two spaces possess a creative and subversive potential in the production of meaning in the narrative. In order to consolidate my hypothesis, I will apply Henry Lefebvre’s concept of absolute space, Edmund Burke’s and Immanuel Kant’s concepts of the sublime, and the concept of landscape in the analysis of polar ice in the novels; and Lefebvre’s concept of social space with Michel Foucault’s concept of heterotopia in the investigation of ship spaces. By reconceptualising the functional use of the two spaces, the PhD project aims to set out new social and spatial perspectives on the polar exploration addressed in the primary texts. Ultimately, with this project, I intend to fashion a revised understanding of the interaction between a natural site and human agents in polar literature in which broader cultural implications of this interaction can be (re-)considered.

*Jakhan Pirhulyieva (University of Bern, Switzerland)

P 5: Affective Gender: Navigating the unknown in contemporary female solo travel writing

Scholars interested in women’s solo travel writing have long assigned central importance to the role of gender. Recent scholarship in the humanities has offered new perspectives on affect, emotion and phenomenology. Bringing together the two, this presentation for the first time interrogates the role of gender in, and its bearing on, the female solo traveller’s exploration of space in Dervla Murphy’s In Ethiopia with a Mule and Rosemary Mahoney’s Down the Nile: Alone in a Fisherman’s Skiff. It does this through the analysis of internalised manifestations of affect and in so doing suggest a more fluid and flexible approach to the genre.

*Gemma Lake (University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom)